Theranostics 2023; 13(1):106-124. doi:10.7150/thno.76133 This issue Cite

Research Paper

Borneol-driven meningeal lymphatic drainage clears amyloid-β peptide to attenuate Alzheimer-like phenotype in mice

Yue Wu1, Tingting Zhang1, Xianqiang Li1, Yimei Wei1, Xinyu Li1, Sixue Wang1, Jun Liu2,3, Dan Li4,5, Shujun Wang1✉, Tiantian Ye1✉

1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.
2. Department of Pharmaceutics, Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang Junhong Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd. Shenyang, 110016, China.
3. Research and development center, Jiangsu Aidi Nano Biomedical Co., Ltd., Nantong, 226000, China.
4. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Chinese Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.
5. Research and development center, Shenyang Junhong Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd. Shenyang, 110031, China.

Citation:
Wu Y, Zhang T, Li X, Wei Y, Li X, Wang S, Liu J, Li D, Wang S, Ye T. Borneol-driven meningeal lymphatic drainage clears amyloid-β peptide to attenuate Alzheimer-like phenotype in mice. Theranostics 2023; 13(1):106-124. doi:10.7150/thno.76133. https://www.thno.org/v13p0106.htm
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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Rationale: The accumulation and clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The (re)discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels in recent years has focused attention on the lymphatic clearance of Aβ and has become a promising therapeutic target for such diseases. However, there is a lack of small molecular compounds that could clearly regulate meningeal lymphatic drainage to remove Aβ from the brain.

Methods: We investigated the effect of borneol on meningeal lymphatic clearance of macromolecules with different molecular weights (including Aβ) in the brain. To further investigate the mechanism of borneol regulating meningeal lymphatic drainage, immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, ELISA, RT-qPCR, and Nitric Oxide assay kits were used. The cognitive function of AD mice after borneol treatment was evaluated using two behavioral tests: open field (OF) and Morris water maze (MWM).

Results: This study discovered that borneol could accelerate the lymphatic clearance of Aβ from the brain by enhancing meningeal lymphatic drainage. Preliminary mechanism analysis revealed that borneol could improve the permeability and inner diameter of lymphatic vessels, allowing macromolecules to drain into the cervical lymph nodes (CLNS) and then be transported to the lymphatic circulation. To speed up the clearance of macromolecules, borneol also stimulated lymphatic constriction by lowering the level of nitric oxide in the meninges. In addition, borneol stimulated lymphangiogenesis by increasing the levels of FOXC2, VEGFC, and LYVE-1 in the meninges, which promoted the clearance rates of macromolecules. Borneol improved meningeal lymphatic clearance not only for Aβ but also for other macromolecular polymers (molecular weight in the range of 2 KD - 45 KD. Borneol ameliorated cognitive deficits and alleviated brain Aβ burden in Aβ-injected mice.

Conclusions: Our findings not only provide a strategy to regulate lymphatic clearance pathways of macromolecules in the brain, but also new targets and ideas for treating neurodegenerative diseases like AD. Furthermore, our findings indicate that borneol is a promising therapeutic drug for AD.

Keywords: Borneol, meningeal lymphatic vessels, lymphatic clearance, amyloid-β peptide, Alzheimer's disease


Citation styles

APA
Wu, Y., Zhang, T., Li, X., Wei, Y., Li, X., Wang, S., Liu, J., Li, D., Wang, S., Ye, T. (2023). Borneol-driven meningeal lymphatic drainage clears amyloid-β peptide to attenuate Alzheimer-like phenotype in mice. Theranostics, 13(1), 106-124. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.76133.

ACS
Wu, Y.; Zhang, T.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Li, X.; Wang, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D.; Wang, S.; Ye, T. Borneol-driven meningeal lymphatic drainage clears amyloid-β peptide to attenuate Alzheimer-like phenotype in mice. Theranostics 2023, 13 (1), 106-124. DOI: 10.7150/thno.76133.

NLM
Wu Y, Zhang T, Li X, Wei Y, Li X, Wang S, Liu J, Li D, Wang S, Ye T. Borneol-driven meningeal lymphatic drainage clears amyloid-β peptide to attenuate Alzheimer-like phenotype in mice. Theranostics 2023; 13(1):106-124. doi:10.7150/thno.76133. https://www.thno.org/v13p0106.htm

CSE
Wu Y, Zhang T, Li X, Wei Y, Li X, Wang S, Liu J, Li D, Wang S, Ye T. 2023. Borneol-driven meningeal lymphatic drainage clears amyloid-β peptide to attenuate Alzheimer-like phenotype in mice. Theranostics. 13(1):106-124.

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