1. Center of Growth, Metabolism, and Aging, Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
2. Department of Oncology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China
3. Research Institute, GloriousMed Clinical Laboratory (Shanghai) Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China
4. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Immunotherapy, Chongqing, China
Background: Chromothripsis caused massive, clustered genomic rearrangements is prevalent in cancer and is considered a new paradigm for tumorigenesis and progression. In this study, we investigated the association among chromothripsis, anti-tumor immune responses, and responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB).
Methods: Quantification of immune cell infiltration and functional enrichment of immune-related signaling pathways were performed in the discovery set (n = 9403) and the validation set (n = 1140). we investigated the association between chromothripsis and anti-tumor immune responses. In the immunotherapy cohort, copy number alteration-based chromothripsis scores (CPSs) were introduced to assess the extent of chromothripsis to evaluate its association with responsiveness to ICB.
Results: In the discovery set and the validation set, the ratios of CD8+ T cells to Tregs, TAMs, and MDSCs were significantly lower in tumors with chromothripsis (P = 1.5 × 10-13, P = 5.4 × 10-8, and P = 1.2 × 10-4, respectively, TCGA; P = 1.0 × 10-13, P = 3.6 × 10-15, and P = 3.3 × 10-3, respectively, PCAWG). The relevant pathways underlying the antitumor immune effect were significantly enriched in tumors without chromothripsis. Chromothripsis can be used as an independent predictor, and patients with low-CPSs experienced longer overall survival (OS) after immunotherapy [HR, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.28; P = 0.019].
Conclusions: Our findings highlight the reduced cytotoxic immune infiltration in tumors with chromothripsis and enhanced immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Chromothripsis can thus be used as a potential indicator to help identify patients who will respond to ICB, which could complement established biomarkers.
Keywords: Chromothripsis, checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, biomarkers, cytotoxic immune infiltration, responsiveness