Theranostics 2022; 12(16):7132-7157. doi:10.7150/thno.77830 This issue Cite

Review

Specificity of oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents

Daria D. Nedorezova1, Mikhail V. Dubovichenko1, Ekaterina P. Belyaeva1, Ekaterina D. Grigorieva1, Arina V. Peresadina1, Dmitry M. Kolpashchikov1,2,3✉

1. Laboratory of Molecular Robotics and Biosensor Materials, International Institute SCAMT, ITMO University, 9 Lomonosov Str., St. Petersburg, 191002, Russian Federation.
2. Chemistry Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2366, USA.
3. Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.

Citation:
Nedorezova DD, Dubovichenko MV, Belyaeva EP, Grigorieva ED, Peresadina AV, Kolpashchikov DM. Specificity of oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents. Theranostics 2022; 12(16):7132-7157. doi:10.7150/thno.77830. https://www.thno.org/v12p7132.htm
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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents (e. g. antisense, deoxyribozymes, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas) are promising therapeutic tools. Despite extensive efforts, only few OGT drugs have been approved for clinical use. Besides the problem of efficient delivery to targeted cells, hybridization specificity is a potential limitation of OGT agents. To ensure tight binding, a typical OGT agent hybridizes to the stretch of 15-25 nucleotides of a unique targeted sequence. However, hybrids of such lengths tolerate one or more mismatches under physiological conditions, the problem known as the affinity/specificity dilemma. Here, we assess the scale of this problem by analyzing OGT hybridization-dependent off-target effects (HD OTE) in vitro, in animal models and clinical studies. All OGT agents except deoxyribozymes exhibit HD OTE in vitro, with most thorough evidence of poor specificity reported for siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9. Notably, siRNA suppress non-targeted genes due to (1) the partial complementarity to mRNA 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR), and (2) the antisense activity of the sense strand. CRISPR/Cas9 system can cause hundreds of non-intended dsDNA breaks due to low specificity of the guide RNA, which can limit therapeutic applications of CRISPR/Cas9 by ex-vivo formats. Contribution of this effects to the observed in vivo toxicity of OGT agents is unclear and requires further investigation. Locked or peptide nucleic acids improve OGT nuclease resistance but not specificity. Approaches that use RNA marker dependent (conditional) activation of OGT agents may improve specificity but require additional validation in cell culture and in vivo.

Keywords: gene therapy, therapeutic oligonucleotides, hybridization selectivity, cancer, off-target effect, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, deoxyribozymes, CRISPR/Cas


Citation styles

APA
Nedorezova, D.D., Dubovichenko, M.V., Belyaeva, E.P., Grigorieva, E.D., Peresadina, A.V., Kolpashchikov, D.M. (2022). Specificity of oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents. Theranostics, 12(16), 7132-7157. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.77830.

ACS
Nedorezova, D.D.; Dubovichenko, M.V.; Belyaeva, E.P.; Grigorieva, E.D.; Peresadina, A.V.; Kolpashchikov, D.M. Specificity of oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents. Theranostics 2022, 12 (16), 7132-7157. DOI: 10.7150/thno.77830.

NLM
Nedorezova DD, Dubovichenko MV, Belyaeva EP, Grigorieva ED, Peresadina AV, Kolpashchikov DM. Specificity of oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents. Theranostics 2022; 12(16):7132-7157. doi:10.7150/thno.77830. https://www.thno.org/v12p7132.htm

CSE
Nedorezova DD, Dubovichenko MV, Belyaeva EP, Grigorieva ED, Peresadina AV, Kolpashchikov DM. 2022. Specificity of oligonucleotide gene therapy (OGT) agents. Theranostics. 12(16):7132-7157.

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