1. Institute of Translational Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.
2. Musculoskeletal Organoid Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.
Bone and soft tissue tumors are complex mesenchymal neoplasms that seriously endanger human health. Over the past decade, the relationship between microorganisms and human health and diseases is getting more attention. The extracellular vesicles derived from bacteria have been shown to regulate bacterial-host cell communication by transferring their contents, including nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites, lipopolysaccharides, and peptidoglycans. Bacteria extracellular vesicles (BEVs) are promising lipid-bilayer nanocarriers for the treatment of many diseases due to their low toxicity, drug loading capacity, ease of modification and industrialization. Specially, BEVs-based cancer therapy has attracted much attention because of their ability to effectively stimulate immune responses. In this review, we provide an overview of the biogenesis, composition, isolation, classification, and internalization of BEVs. We then comprehensively summarize the sources of BEVs in cancer therapy and the BEVs-related cancer treatment strategies. We further highlight the great potential of BEVs in bone and soft tissue tumors. Finally, we conclude the major advantages and challenges of BEVs-based cancer therapy. We believe that the comprehensive understanding of BEVs in the field of cancer therapy will generate innovative solutions to bone and soft tissue tumors and achieve clinical applications.
Keywords: Bone and soft tissue tumors, Bacteria extracellular vesicles, Immunotherapy, Synergistic therapy, Nanotechnology