Theranostics 2021; 11(18):9022-9037. doi:10.7150/thno.60350 This issue

Review

Targeting of promising transmembrane proteins for diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Vida Mashayekhi1*, Orsola Mocellin1*, Marcel H.A.M. Fens2, Gerard C. Krijger3, Lodewijk A.A. Brosens4, Sabrina Oliveira1,2✉

1. Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Biophysics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, the Netherlands.
2. Pharmaceutics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, the Netherlands.
3. Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Faculty of Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.
4. Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Faculty of Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Citation:
Mashayekhi V, Mocellin O, Fens MHAM, Krijger GC, Brosens LAA, Oliveira S. Targeting of promising transmembrane proteins for diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Theranostics 2021; 11(18):9022-9037. doi:10.7150/thno.60350. Available from https://www.thno.org/v11p9022.htm

File import instruction

Abstract

Graphic abstract

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal types of cancer due to the relatively late diagnosis and the limited therapeutic options. Current treatment regimens mainly comprise the cytotoxic agents gemcitabine and FOLFIRINOX. These compounds have shown limited efficacy and severe side effects, highlighting the necessity for earlier detection and the development of more effective, and better-tolerated treatments. Although targeted therapies are promising for the treatment of several types of cancer, identification of suitable targets for early diagnosis and targeted therapy of PDAC is challenging. Interestingly, several transmembrane proteins are overexpressed in PDAC cells that show low expression in healthy pancreas and may therefore serve as potential targets for treatment and/or diagnostic purposes. In this review we describe the 11 most promising transmembrane proteins, carefully selected after a thorough literature search. Favorable features and potential applications of each target, as well as the results of the preclinical and clinical studies conducted in the past ten years, are discussed in detail.

Keywords: PDAC, transmembrane proteins, targeted therapy, diagnosis