Theranostics 2019; 9(21):6129-6142. doi:10.7150/thno.37094 This issue Cite
1. Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2S2, AB, Canada
2. Cancer Research Institute of Northern Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2S2, AB, Canada
3. Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2R7, Canada
Metastasis is the leading cause of mortality in breast cancer patients and lysophosphatidate (LPA) signaling promotes this process. LPA signaling is attenuated by lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1) whose activity is decreased in cancers. Consequently, increasing LPP1 levels suppresses breast tumor growth and metastasis. This study shows that increasing LPP1 in breast cancer cells decreases transcription through cFos and cJun. This decreases production of cyclin D1/D3 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which provides new insights into the role of LPP1 in controlling tumor growth and metastasis.
Methods: Invasiveness was determined by a Matrigel invasion assay. MMP expression was measured by qPCR, multiplex LASER bead technology and gelatin zymography. Levels of cJUN, cFOS, FRA1, cyclin D1, and cyclin D3 were determined by qPCR and western blotting. Collagen was determined by Picro-Sirius Red staining.
Results: Increasing LPP1 expression inhibited invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through Matrigel. This was accompanied by decreases in expression of MMP-1, -3, -7, -9, -10, -12 and -13, which are transcriptionally regulated by the AP-1 complex. Increasing LPP1 attenuated the induction of mRNA of MMP-1, -3, cFOS, and cJUN by EGF or TNFα, but increased FRA1. LPP1 expression also decreased the induction of protein levels for cFOS and cJUN in nuclei and cytoplasmic fractions by EGF and TNFα. Protein levels of cyclin D1 and D3 were also decreased by LPP1. Although FRA1 in total cell lysates or cytoplasm was increased by LPP1, nuclear FRA1 was not affected. LPP1-induced decreases in MMPs in mouse tumors created with MDA-MB-231 cells were accompanied by increased collagen in the tumors and fewer lung metastases. Knockdown of LPP1 in MDA-MB-231 cells increased the protein levels of MMP-1 and -3. Human breast tumors also have lower levels of LPP1 and higher levels of cJUN, cFOS, MMP-1, -7, -8, -9, -12, -13, cyclin D1, and cyclin D3 relative to normal breast tissue.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the low LPP1 expression in breast cancer cells is associated with high levels of cyclin D1/D3 and MMPs as a result of increased transcription by cFOS and cJUN. Increasing LPP1 expression provides a novel approach for decreasing transcription through AP-1, which could provide a strategy for decreasing tumor growth and metastasis.
Keywords: Extracellular matrix, cJUN, cFOS, metastasis, tumor growth