1. State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.
2. Xi'an Institute of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.
3. State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.
4. Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shannxi, 710069, China.
5. Department of Orthopaedics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shannxi, 710069, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Rational: Senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the related functional decline of osteogenesis have emerged as the critical pathogenesis of osteoporosis in aging. Resveratrol (RESV), a small molecular compound that safely mimics the effects of dietary restriction, has been well documented to extend lifespan in lower organisms and improve health in aging rodents. However, whether RESV promotes function of senescent stem cells in alleviating age-related phenotypes remains largely unknown. Here, we intend to investigate whether RESV counteracts senescence-associated bone loss via osteogenic improvement of MSCs and the underlying mechanism.
Methods: MSCs derived from bone marrow (BMMSCs) and the bone-specific, senescence-accelerated, osteoblastogenesis/osteogenesis-defective mice (the SAMP6 strain) were used as experimental models. In vivo application of RESV was performed at 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally once every other day for 2 months, and in vitro application of RESV was performed at 10 μM. Bone mass, bone formation rates and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs were primarily evaluated. Metabolic statuses of BMMSCs and the mitochondrial activity, transcription and morphology were also examined. Mitofilin expression was assessed at both mRNA and protein levels, and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based gene knockdown was applied for mechanistic experiments.
Results: Chronic intermittent application of RESV enhances bone formation and counteracts accelerated bone loss, with RESV improving osteogenic differentiation of senescent BMMSCs. Furthermore, in rescuing osteogenic decline under BMMSC senescence, RESV restores cellular metabolism through mitochondrial functional recovery via facilitating mitochondrial autonomous gene transcription. Molecularly, in alleviating senescence-associated mitochondrial disorders of BMMSCs, particularly the mitochondrial morphological alterations, RESV upregulates Mitofilin, also known as inner membrane protein of mitochondria (Immt) or Mic60, which is the core component of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). Moreover, Mitofilin is revealed to be indispensable for mitochondrial homeostasis and osteogenesis of BMMSCs, and that insufficiency of Mitofilin leads to BMMSC senescence and bone loss. More importantly, Mitofilin mediates resveratrol-induced mitochondrial and osteogenic improvements of BMMSCs in senescence.
Conclusion: Our findings uncover osteogenic functional improvements of senescent MSCs as critical impacts in anti-osteoporotic practice of RESV, and unravel Mitofilin as a novel mechanism mediating RESV promotion on mitochondrial function in stem cell senescence.
Keywords: resveratrol, osteoporosis, mesenchymal stem cells, senescence-accelerated mice, osteogenesis, Mitofilin/IMMT/Mic60