1. Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructure and Nanotechnology, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
3. Beijing Fullcan Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100085, China.
4. Chifeng Fullcan Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Inner Mongolia, 024099, China.
5. Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.
Neuroinflammation is considered to drive the pathogenic process of neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effective anti-neuroinflammation therapeutics for PD still remain dissatisfactory. Here we explore a robust therapeutic strategy for PD using anti-neuroinflammatory fullerenes.
Methods: Oral fullerene was prepared by a ball-milling method. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model was used to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of it. The gut microenvironment was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), and western blot (WB). The neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were evaluated by pathological analysis, Elisa kits, transmission electron microscopy, Q-PCR, WB and so on. Toxicity was assessed by weight, blood test and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.
Results: Oral fullerene therapeutic system that dissolved fullerene into olive oil (abbreviated as OFO) was dexterously designed, which could reduce neuroinflammation via regulating the diversity of gut microbiome, increasing the contents of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and recovering the integrity of gut barrier. Accordingly, the reduction of neuroinflammation prevented dopaminergic neuronal degeneration. And thus, OFO significantly ameliorated motor deficits and fundamentally reversed dopamine (DA) loss in MPTP-induced PD mice. Of note, OFO exhibited low toxicity towards the living body.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that OFO is a safe-to-use, easy-to-apply, and prospective candidate for PD treatment in clinic, opening a therapeutic window for neuroinflammation-triggered neurodegeneration.
Keywords: Oral fullerene, Parkinson's disease, Gut microbiota, Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration