Theranostics 2023; 13(7):2301-2318. doi:10.7150/thno.82700 This issue Cite
1. Department of Pathophysiology, Medical College, Nanchang University, 461 Bayi Road, Nanchang 330006, China.
2. Queen Mary College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.
3. Second Clinical Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.
4. First Clinical Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.
5. Department of Burn, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 17 Yongwaizheng Road, Nanschang 330066, China.
†These authors have contributed equally to this work and share the first authorship.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Metastasis is a major contributor to high cancer mortality and is usually the endpoint of a series of sequential and dynamic events. One of the critical events is forming a pre-metastatic niche (PMN) that occurs before macroscopic tumor cell invasion and provides a suitable environment for tumor cells to colonize and progress into metastases. Due to the unique characteristics of PMN in cancer metastasis, developing therapies to target PMN may bring new advantages in preventing cancer metastasis at an early stage. Various biological molecules, cells, and signaling pathways are altered in BC, regulating the functions of distinctive immune cells and stromal remodeling, inducing angiogenesis, and effect metabolic reprogramming and organotropism to promote PMN formation. In this review, we elucidate the multifaceted mechanisms contributing to the development of PMN in BC, discuss the characteristics of PMN, and highlight the significance of PMN in providing potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for BC metastasis, which may bring promising insights and foundations for future studies.