The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University (Henan Mental Hospital), Xinxiang, 453000, China.
Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, 453003, China.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, which severely threatens the health of the elderly and causes significant economic and social burdens. The causes of AD are complex and include heritable but mostly aging-related factors. The primary aging hallmarks include genomic instability, telomere wear, epigenetic changes, and loss of protein stability, which play a dominant role in the aging process. Although AD is closely associated with the aging process, the underlying mechanisms involved in AD pathogenesis have not been well characterized. This review summarizes the available literature about primary aging hallmarks and their roles in AD pathogenesis. By analyzing published literature, we attempted to uncover the possible mechanisms of aberrant epigenetic markers with related enzymes, transcription factors, and loss of proteostasis in AD. In particular, the importance of oxidative stress-induced DNA methylation and DNA methylation-directed histone modifications and proteostasis are highlighted. A molecular network of gene regulatory elements that undergoes a dynamic change with age may underlie age-dependent AD pathogenesis, and can be used as a new drug target to treat AD.
Keywords: Aging, Alzheimer's disease, Epigenetics, Molecular neurobiology, Neurodegeneration, Oxidative stress