1. Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
3. Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
4. Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.
With rapid advances in modern imaging, minimally invasive ablative procedures have emerged as popular alternatives to surgical removal of tumors. Tumor ablation modalities currently offered in clinical practice include microwave ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and irreversible electroporation. Cryoablation, a non-heat-based method of ablation, is increasingly being used for treating various solid tumors. Accumulated comparative data of cryoablation versus heat-based ablation techniques (e.g., radiofrequency and microwave ablation) shows superior tumor response and quicker recovery time. Evolving research has demonstrated that nanocarriers may serves as excellent catalysts for the cryoablation therapy, imaging guidance, and the co-delivery of therapeutics for minimally invasive, precise, and complete treatment of cancer with immune modulation. This review article focuses on the current status of cryoablation in clinical practice, considers opportunities for enhancing therapeutic outcomes from cryoablation, and discusses new research in the field, including theranostic nanoparticles-mediated cryotherapy and combinational cryo-based immunotherapies.
Keywords: cryoablation, nanoparticles, image-guided therapy, ablation, immunotherapy