Theranostics 2021; 11(2):841-860. doi:10.7150/thno.49384 This issue
1. Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China;
2. Shenzhen Huazhong University of Science and Technology Research Institute, Shenzhen, China;
3. Department of Urology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
# These authors contributed equally to this work
Current endocrine therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) mainly inhibits androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling. However, due to increased intratumoural androgen synthesis and AR variation, PCa progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which ultimately becomes resistant to endocrine therapy. A search for new therapeutic perspectives is urgently needed.
Methods: By screening lipid metabolism-related gene sets and bioinformatics analysis in prostate cancer database, we identified the key lipid metabolism-related genes in PCa. Bisulfite genomic Sequence Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (BSP) and Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (MSP) were preformed to detect the promoter methylation of ACSS3. Gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, IHC and co-IP. The function of ACSS3 in PCa was measured by CCK-8, Transwell assays. LC/MS, Oil Red O assays and TG and cholesterol measurement assays were to detect the levels of TG and cholesterol in cells. Resistance to Enzalutamide in C4-2 ENZR cells was examined in a xenograft tumorigenesis model in vivo.
Results: We found that acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 3 (ACSS3) was downregulated and predicted a poor prognosis in PCa. Loss of ACSS3 expression was due to gene promoter methylation. Restoration of ACSS3 expression in PCa cells significantly reduced LD deposits, thus promoting apoptosis by increasing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and decreasing de novo intratumoral androgen synthesis, inhibiting CRPC progression and reversing Enzalutamide resistance. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that ACSS3 reduced LD deposits by regulating the stability of the LD coat protein perilipin 3 (PLIN3).
Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that ACSS3 represses prostate cancer progression through downregulating lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN3.
Keywords: prostate cancer, ACSS3, PLIN3, lipid droplet