1. College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.
2. School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.
3. College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610, Republic of Korea.
Several therapeutic nanosystems have been engineered to remedy the shortcomings of cancer monotherapies, including immunotherapy (stimulating the host immune system to eradicate cancer), to improve therapeutic efficacy with minimizing off-target effects and tumor-induced immunosuppression. Light-activated components in nanosystems confer additional phototherapeutic effects as combinatorial modalities; however, systemic and thermal toxicities with unfavorable accumulation and excretion of nanoystem components now hamper their practical applications. Thus, there remains a need for optimal multifunctional nanosystems to enhance targeted, durable, and mild combination therapies for efficient cancer treatment without notable side effects.
Methods: A nanosystem constructed with a base core (poly-L-histidine [H]-grafted black phosphorus [BP]) and a shell (erythrocyte membrane [EM]) is developed to offer a mild photoresponsive (near-infrared) activity with erythrocyte mimicry. In-flight electrostatic tailoring to extract uniform BP nanoparticles maintains a hydrodynamic size of <200 nm (enabling enhanced permeability and retention) after EM cloaking and enhances their biocompatibility.
Results: Ephrin-A2 receptor-specific peptide (YSA, targeting cancer cells), interleukin-1α silencing small interfering RNA (ILsi, restricting regulatory T cell trafficking), and paclitaxel (X, inducing durable chemotherapeutics) are incorporated within the base core@shell constructs to create BP-H-ILsi-X@EM-YSA architectures, which provide a more intelligent nanosystem for combination cancer therapies.
Conclusion: The in-flight tailoring of BP particles provides a promising base core for fabricating <200 nm EM-mimicking multifunctional nanosystems, which could be beneficial for constructing smarter nanoarchitectures to use in combination cancer therapies.
Keywords: therapeutic nanosystems, tailored black phosphorus nanoparticles, erythrocyte membranes, core@shell constructs, combination cancer therapies.