Theranostics 2022; 12(15):6740-6761. doi:10.7150/thno.75899 This issue
1. State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, People's Republic of China.
2. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, People's Republic of China.
3. Cadet Team 6 of School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.
4. Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, People's Republic of China.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), of which exosomes are a representative subgroup, are naturally secreted nanoparticles with a variety of payloads. With the intrinsic merits of stability, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, and large capacity, EVs are widely regarded as effective carriers of drug delivery. However, disadvantages, such as low yield, complicated isolation procedures, and low loading efficiency, hinder its clinical translation. In this review, we systematically summarize the advances in EV (especially exosomes) engineering for clinical application, focusing on strategies toward high yield, facile isolation, efficient cargo loading, improved delivery, and optimized manufacturing, which might unleash the infinite power of EVs in clinical translation.
Keywords: extracellular vesicles, clinical translation, yield, isolation, cargo loading, delivery, manufacturing