Theranostics 2022; 12(14):6223-6241. doi:10.7150/thno.73421 This issue


Targeted delivery of nanomedicines for promoting vascular regeneration in ischemic diseases

Jie Zhuang1,2,3✉, Xiangyun Zhang2,3, Qiqi Liu2,3, Mingsheng Zhu2,3, Xinglu Huang2,3✉

1. School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.
2. Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, and Frontiers Science Center for Cell Responses, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.
3. Joint Laboratory of Nanozymes, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

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Zhuang J, Zhang X, Liu Q, Zhu M, Huang X. Targeted delivery of nanomedicines for promoting vascular regeneration in ischemic diseases. Theranostics 2022; 12(14):6223-6241. doi:10.7150/thno.73421. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Ischemic diseases, the leading cause of disability and death, are caused by the restriction or blockage of blood flow in specific tissues, including ischemic cardiac, ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic peripheral vascular diseases. The regeneration of functional vasculature network in ischemic tissues is essential for treatment of ischemic diseases. Direct delivery of pro-angiogenesis factors, such as VEGF, has demonstrated the effectiveness in ischemic disease therapy but suffering from several obstacles, such as low delivery efficacy in disease sites and uncontrolled modulation. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of inducing vascular regeneration, providing the guidance for designing the desired nanomedicines. We also introduce the delivery of various nanomedicines to ischemic tissues by passive or active targeting manner. To achieve the efficient delivery of nanomedicines in various ischemic diseases, we highlight targeted delivery of nanomedicines and controllable modulation of disease microenvironment using nanomedicines.

Keywords: nanomedicines, targeted delivery, vascular regeneration, theranostics, ischemic diseases