Theranostics 2022; 12(10):4671-4683. doi:10.7150/thno.74770 This issue

Research Paper

Plasma lipids signify the progression of precancerous gastric lesions to gastric cancer: a prospective targeted lipidomics study

Zong-Chao Liu1*, Wen-Hui Wu1*, Sha Huang1, Zhong-Wu Li1, Xue Li1, Guang-Hou Shui2, Sin Man Lam2, Bo-Wen Li3, Zhe-Xuan Li1, Yang Zhang1, Tong Zhou1, Wei-Cheng You1, Kai-Feng Pan1✉, Wen-Qing Li1✉

1. Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, 100142, China.
2. State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.
3. LipidALL Technologies Company Limited, Changzhou, 213022, Jiangsu Province, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this paper.

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Citation:
Liu ZC, Wu WH, Huang S, Li ZW, Li X, Shui GH, Lam SM, Li BW, Li ZX, Zhang Y, Zhou T, You WC, Pan KF, Li WQ. Plasma lipids signify the progression of precancerous gastric lesions to gastric cancer: a prospective targeted lipidomics study. Theranostics 2022; 12(10):4671-4683. doi:10.7150/thno.74770. Available from https://www.thno.org/v12p4671.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Rationale: Gastric cancer (GC) is preceded by a stepwise progression of precancerous gastric lesions. Distinguishing individuals with precancerous gastric lesions that have progression potential to GC is an important need. Perturbated lipid metabolism, particularly the dysregulation of de novo lipogenesis, is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. We conducted the first prospective lipidomics study exploring lipidomic signatures for the risk of gastric lesion progression and early GC.

Methods: Our two-stage study of targeted lipidomics enrolled 400 subjects from the National Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Early Detection Program in China, including 200 subjects of GC and different gastric lesions in the discovery and validation stages. Of validation stage, 152 cases with gastric lesions were prospectively followed for the progression of gastric lesions for a median follow-up of 580 days (interquartile range 390-806 days). We examined the lipidomic signatures associated with the risk of advanced gastric lesions and their progression to GC. Our published tissue proteomic data were referred to further investigate highlighted lipids with their biologically related protein expression in gastric mucosa.

Results: We identified 11 plasma lipids significantly inversely associated with the risk of gastric lesion progression and GC occurrence. These lipids were integrated as latent profiles to identify 5 clusters of lipid expression that had distinct risk of gastric lesion progression. The latent profiles significantly improved the ability to predict the progression potential of gastric lesions (AUC: 0.82 vs 0.68, Delong's P = 4.6×10-4) and risk of early GC (AUC: 0.81 vs 0.55, P = 6.3×10-5). Significant associations were found between highlighted lipids, their biologically correlated proteins and the risk of GC, supporting the role of the pathways involving monocarboxylic acid metabolism and lipid transport and catabolic process in GC.

Conclusions: Our study revealed the lipidomic signatures associated with the risk of gastric lesion progression and GC occurrence, exhibiting translational implications for GC prevention.

Keywords: Gastric cancer, Lipidomics, Precancerous gastric lesion, Biomarker