Theranostics 2023; 13(7):2114-2139. doi:10.7150/thno.80213 This issue Cite
1. Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China
2. Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China
3. School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been demonstrated to provide a survival benefit for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, conventional TACE still faces limitations associated with complications, side effects, unsatisfactory tumor responses, repeated treatment, and narrow indications. For further improvement of TACE, additional beneficial functions such as degradability, drug-loading and releasing properties, detectability, targetability, and multiple therapeutic modalities were introduced. The purpose here is to provide a comprehensive overview of current and emerging particulate embolization technology with respect to materials. Therefore, this review systematically identified and described typical features, various functions, and practical applications of recently emerging micro/nano materials as particulate embolic agents for TACE. Besides, new insights into the liquid metals-based multifunctional and flexible embolic agents were highlighted. The current development routes and future outlooks of these micro/nano embolic materials were also presented to promote advancement in the field.
Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), Micro/nano materials, Particulate embolic agents, Ga based liquid metal, Multifunctional flexible embolic agents