Theranostics 2022; 12(2):689-719. doi:10.7150/thno.64806 This issue

Review

Dodging blood brain barrier with “nano” warriors: Novel strategy against ischemic stroke

Suhel Parvez1✉, Medha Kaushik1, Mubashshir Ali1, Mohammad Mumtaz Alam2, Javed Ali3, Heena Tabassum4, Pooja Kaushik1✉

1. Department of Toxicology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.
2. Drug Design & Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India.
3. Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110062, India.
4. Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, P.O. Box No. 4911, New Delhi 110029, India.

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Citation:
Parvez S, Kaushik M, Ali M, Alam MM, Ali J, Tabassum H, Kaushik P. Dodging blood brain barrier with “nano” warriors: Novel strategy against ischemic stroke. Theranostics 2022; 12(2):689-719. doi:10.7150/thno.64806. Available from https://www.thno.org/v12p0689.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Ischemic stroke (IS) is one of the leading causes of death and disability resulting in inevitable burden globally. Ischemic injury initiates cascade of pathological events comprising energy dwindling, failure of ionic gradients, failure of blood brain barrier (BBB), vasogenic edema, calcium over accumulation, excitotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and eventually cell death. In spite of such complexity of the disease, the only treatment approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This therapy overcome blood deficiency in the brain along with side effects of reperfusion which are responsible for considerable tissue injury. Therefore, there is urgent need of novel therapeutic perspectives that can protect the integrity of BBB and salvageable brain tissue. Advancement in nanomedicine is empowering new approaches that are potent to improve the understanding and treatment of the IS. Herein, we focus nanomaterial mediated drug delivery systems (DDSs) and their role to bypass and cross BBB especially via intranasal drug delivery. The various nanocarriers used in DDSs are also discussed. In a nut shell, the objective is to provide an overview of use of nanomedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of IS to facilitate the research from benchtop to bedside.

Keywords: Ischemic stroke, Nanomedicine, Drug delivery system, Intranasal drug delivery, Blood brain barrier, Neuroprotection