Theranostics 2021; 11(17):8322-8336. doi:10.7150/thno.62378

Review

Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts and its effect on cancer cell reprogramming

Zhenzhen Li, Chanjun Sun, Zhihai Qin

Medical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China

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Citation:
Li Z, Sun C, Qin Z. Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts and its effect on cancer cell reprogramming. Theranostics 2021; 11(17):8322-8336. doi:10.7150/thno.62378. Available from https://www.thno.org/v11p8322.htm

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Abstract

Cancer cells are well-known for adapting their metabolism to maintain high proliferation rates and survive in unfavorable environments with low oxygen and nutritional deficiency. Metabolic reprogramming most commonly arises from the tumor microenvironment (TME). The events of metabolic pathways include the Warburg effect, shift in Krebs cycle metabolites, and increase rate of oxidative phosphorylation that provides the energy for the development and invasion of cancer cells. The TME and shift in tumor metabolism shows a close relationship through bidirectional signaling pathways between the stromal and tumor cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of stromal cells in the TME and consist of a heterogeneous and plastic population that play key roles in tumor growth and metastatic capacity. Emerging evidence suggests that CAFs act as major regulators in shaping tumor metabolism especially through the dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, including glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. The arrangement of these metabolic switches is believed to shape distinct CAF behavior and change tumor cell behavior by the CAFs. The crosstalk between cancer cells and CAFs is associated with cell metabolic reprogramming that contributes to cancer cell growth, progression, and evasion from cancer therapies. But the mechanism and process of this interaction remain unclear. This review aimed to highlight the metabolic couplings between tumor cells and CAFs. We reviewed the recent literature supporting an important role of CAFs in the regulation of cancer cell metabolism, and the relevant pathways, which may serve as targets for therapeutic interventions.

Keywords: Cancer-associated fibroblasts, Cancer, Metabolic reprogramming, Tumor microenvironment