Theranostics 2020; 10(11):4944-4957. doi:10.7150/thno.42471 This issue
1. College of Chemistry & Environmental Science, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, P. R. China;
2. CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.
Due to their lower systemic toxicity, faster kidney clearance and higher tumor accumulation, ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (less than 10 nm in diameter) have been proved to be promising in biomedical applications. However, their potential applications in cancer imaging and treatment have not been reviewed yet. This review summarizes the efforts to develop systems based on ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. First, we describe the methods for controlling the size and surface functionalization of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. Second, we review the research on ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in cancer imaging and treatment. Specifically, we focus on the applications of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in tumor visualization and bioimaging in different fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, photoacoustic imaging, fluorescence imaging, and X-ray scatter imaging. We also highlight the applications of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in tumor chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy and gene therapy.
Keywords: ultrasmall gold nanoparticles, theranostics, size, imaging, cancer therapy