Theranostics 2020; 10(11):4822-4838. doi:10.7150/thno.42387 This issue
1. Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China
2. Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China
3. Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China
*Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Rationale: Potential adverse effects of fluoride on neurodevelopment has been extensively explored and mitochondria have been recognized as critical targets. Mitochondrial biogenesis serves a crucial role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and salubrious properties of resveratrol (RSV) has been well-defined. However, the molecular mechanisms governing mitochondrial biogenesis in developmental fluoride neurotoxicity remain unclear and the related therapeutic dietary agent is lacking.
Methods: In vitro neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model of developmental fluoride exposure were adopted. A total population of 60 children under long-term stable fluoride exposure were also recruited. This work used a combination of biochemical and behavioral techniques. Biochemical methods included analysis of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial biogenesis signaling molecules, including silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Behavioral studies investigated spatial learning and memory ability of rats.
Results: Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that sodium fluoride (NaF) caused mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Also, NaF elevated SIRT1 levels and suppressed SIRT1 deacetylase activity along with decreased levels of PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM, suggestive of dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis signaling molecules. Moreover, enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis by TFAM overexpression alleviated NaF-induced neuronal death through improving mitochondrial function in vitro. Further in vivo and in vitro studies identified RSV, the strongest specific SIRT1 activator, improved mitochondrial biogenesis and subsequent mitochondrial function to protect against developmental fluoride neurotoxicity via activating SIRT1-dependent PGC-1α/NRF1/TFAM signaling pathway. Noteworthy, epidemiological data indicated intimate correlations between disturbed circulating levels of mitochondrial biogenesis signaling molecules and fluoride-caused intellectual loss in children.
Conclusions: Our data suggest the pivotal role of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis in developmental fluoride neurotoxicity and the underlying SIRT1 signaling dysfunction in such neurotoxic process, which emphasizes RSV as a potential therapeutic dietary agent for relieving developmental fluoride neurotoxicity.
Keywords: fluoride, neurodevelopmental damage, mitochondrial biogenesis, SIRT1, resveratrol