1. Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
2. Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310003, China.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by sepsis is a serious disease which mitochondrial oxidative stress and inflammatory play a key role in its pathophysiology. Ceria nanoparticles hold strong and recyclable reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, have been applied to treat ROS-related diseases. However, ceria nanoparticles can't selectively target mitochondria and the ultra-small ceria nanoparticles are easily agglomerated. To overcome these shortcomings and improve therapeutic efficiency, we designed an ROS-responsive nano-drug delivery system combining mitochondria-targeting ceria nanoparticles with atorvastatin for acute kidney injury.
Methods: Ceria nanoparticles were modified with triphenylphosphine (TCeria NPs), followed by coating with ROS-responsive organic polymer (mPEG-TK-PLGA) and loaded atorvastatin (Atv/PTP-TCeria NPs). The physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release profiles, mitochondria-targeting ability, in vitro antioxidant, anti-apoptotic activity and in vivo treatment efficacy of Atv/PTP-TCeria NPs were examined.
Results: Atv/PTP-TCeria NPs could accumulate in kidneys and hold a great ability to ROS-responsively release drug and TCeria NPs could target mitochondria to eliminate excessive ROS. In vitro study suggested Atv/PTP-TCeria NPs exhibited superior antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. In vivo study showed that Atv/PTP-TCeria NPs effectively decreased oxidative stress and inflammatory, could protect the mitochondrial structure, reduced apoptosis of tubular cell and tubular necrosis in the sepsis-induced AKI mice model.
Conclusions: This ROS-responsive nano-drug delivery system combining mitochondria-targeting ceria nanoparticles with atorvastatin has favorable potentials in the sepsis-induced AKI therapy.
Keywords: acute kidney injury, oxidative stress, ROS-responsive, ceria, mitochondria-targeting.