Theranostics 2018; 8(1):124-140. doi:10.7150/thno.19441

Research Paper

Engineered Microenvironments for Maturation of Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Myocytes

Rachel R. Besser1, Matthew Ishahak1, Vera Mayo1, Daniel Carbonero1, Isabella Claure1, Ashutosh Agarwal1,2,3✉

1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami;
2. Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Miami;
3. DJTMF Biomedical Nanotechnology Institute, University of Miami.


Through the use of stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes, tissue-engineered human myocardial constructs are poised for modeling normal and diseased physiology of the heart, as well as discovery of novel drugs and therapeutic targets in a human relevant manner. This review highlights the recent bioengineering efforts to recapitulate microenvironmental cues to further the maturation state of newly differentiated cardiac myocytes. These techniques include long-term culture, co-culture, exposure to mechanical stimuli, 3D culture, cell-matrix interactions, and electrical stimulation. Each of these methods has produced various degrees of maturation; however, a standardized measure for cardiomyocyte maturation is not yet widely accepted by the scientific community.

Keywords: Stem cells, Cardiac Myocytes, Differentiation, Maturation, Tissue Engineering.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Besser RR, Ishahak M, Mayo V, Carbonero D, Claure I, Agarwal A. Engineered Microenvironments for Maturation of Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Myocytes. Theranostics 2018; 8(1):124-140. doi:10.7150/thno.19441. Available from