Theranostics 2015; 5(2):150-172. doi:10.7150/thno.9476


Macrophage Targeted Theranostics as Personalized Nanomedicine Strategies for Inflammatory Diseases

Sravan Kumar Patel, Jelena M. Janjic

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, 15282, USA.


Inflammatory disease management poses challenges due to the complexity of inflammation and inherent patient variability, thereby necessitating patient-specific therapeutic interventions. Theranostics, which integrate therapeutic and imaging functionalities, can be used for simultaneous imaging and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Theranostics could facilitate assessment of safety, toxicity and real-time therapeutic efficacy leading to personalized treatment strategies. Macrophages are an important cellular component of inflammatory diseases, participating in varied roles of disease exacerbation and resolution. The inherent phagocytic nature, abundance and disease homing properties of macrophages can be targeted for imaging and therapeutic purposes. This review discusses the utility of theranostics in macrophage ablation, phenotype modulation and inhibition of their inflammatory activity leading to resolution of inflammation in several diseases.

Keywords: macrophages, theranostics, inflammation, phenotype, photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy.

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How to cite this article:
Patel SK, Janjic JM. Macrophage Targeted Theranostics as Personalized Nanomedicine Strategies for Inflammatory Diseases. Theranostics 2015; 5(2):150-172. doi:10.7150/thno.9476. Available from