Theranostics 2019; 9(14):4130-4140. doi:10.7150/thno.34692

Review

Liquid biopsy in ovarian cancer: recent advances in circulating extracellular vesicle detection for early diagnosis and monitoring progression

Lei Chang1,*, Jie Ni2,3,*, Ying Zhu2,3, Bairen Pang2,3, Peter Graham2,3, Hao Zhang4,5✉, Yong Li2,3,6✉

1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China
2. Cancer Care Centre, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia.
3. St George and Sutherland Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
4. Institute of Precision Cancer Medicine and Pathology and Department of Pathology, Jinan University Medical College, Guangzhou 510630, China.
5. The Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001, China
6. School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Henan 450001, China
*Lei Chang and Jie Ni contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

The current biomarkers available in the clinic are not enough for early diagnosis or for monitoring disease progression of ovarian cancer. Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive test and has the advantage of early diagnosis and real-time monitoring of treatment response. Although significant progress has been made in the usage of circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA for ovarian cancer diagnosis, their potential for early detection or monitoring progression remains elusive. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of lipid membranous particles released from almost all cell types. EVs contain proteins, mRNA, DNA fragments, non-coding RNAs, and lipids and play a critical role in intercellular communication. Emerging evidence suggests that EVs have crucial roles in cancer development and metastasis, thus holding promise for liquid biopsy-based biomarker discovery for ovarian cancer diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the advantages of EV-based liquid biopsy, summarize the protein biomarkers identified from EVs in ovarian cancer, and highlight the utility of new technologies recently developed for EV detection with an emphasis on their use for diagnosing ovarian cancer, monitoring cancer progression, and developing personalized medicine.

Keywords: Extracellular vesicle, ovarian cancer, liquid biopsy, diagnosis

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How to cite this article:
Chang L, Ni J, Zhu Y, Pang B, Graham P, Zhang H, Li Y. Liquid biopsy in ovarian cancer: recent advances in circulating extracellular vesicle detection for early diagnosis and monitoring progression. Theranostics 2019; 9(14):4130-4140. doi:10.7150/thno.34692. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p4130.htm