Theranostics 2019; 9(14):4019-4029. doi:10.7150/thno.33000

Review

New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of sarcopenia in chronic heart failure

Jiayu Yin1,#, Xiang Lu2,#, Zhiyuan Qian3,#, Weiting Xu1, Xiang Zhou1,✉

1. Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China
2. Department of Geriatrics, Sir Run Run Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
3. Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China
# These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Sarcopenia is an age-related geriatric syndrome that is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Chronic heart failure (CHF), the final stage of various cardiovascular diseases, may be closely correlated with the occurrence of sarcopenia. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CHF can promote the development of sarcopenia through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including malnutrition, inflammation, hormonal changes, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. Additionally, CHF can aggravate the adverse outcomes associated with sarcopenia, including falls, osteoporosis, frailty, cachexia, hospitalization, and mortality. Sarcopenia and CHF are mutually interacting clinical syndromes. Patients with these two syndromes seem to endure a double burden, with no particularly effective way to hinder their progression. However, the combination of physical exercise, nutritional supplements, and drug therapy may counteract the development of these maladies. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress in the pathogenesis and treatment of sarcopenia in patients with CHF.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, pathogenesis, sarcopenia, treatment

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How to cite this article:
Yin J, Lu X, Qian Z, Xu W, Zhou X. New insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of sarcopenia in chronic heart failure. Theranostics 2019; 9(14):4019-4029. doi:10.7150/thno.33000. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p4019.htm