Theranostics 2019; 9(2):391-404. doi:10.7150/thno.30268

Research Paper

A Novel Multimodal NIR-II Nanoprobe for the Detection of Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Targeting Chemo-Photothermal Therapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Yufeng Wang1,2*, Wansu Zhang3*, Pengfei Sun3, Yu Cai2, Wenguang Xu1,2, Quli Fan3✉, Qingang Hu1,2✉, Wei Han 1,2✉

1. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, No 30 Zhongyang Road, Nanjing 210008, China.
2. Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, No 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, China.
3. Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biosensors, Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, No 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023, China.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Current surgical treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) must be as precise as possible to fully resect tumors and preserve functional tissues. Thus, it is urgent to develop efficient fluorescent probes to clearly identify tumor delineation, as well as metastatic lymph nodes. Chemo-photothermal therapy combination attracted a growing attention to increase anti-tumor effect in various types of cancer, including OSCC. In the present study, we designed a multimodal NIR-II probe that involves combining photothermal therapy with chemotherapy, imaging OSCC tumors and detecting metastatic lymph nodes.

Methods: In this study, we synthesized a novel near infrared (NIR)-II probe named TQTPA [4,4'-((6,7-bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4-g]quinoxaline-4,9-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(N,N-diphenylaniline)] via the Suzuki reaction and prepared multimodal nanoparticles (NPs) loading TQTPA and cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (CDDP) (HT@CDDP) by hyaluronic acid. The characteristics of the NPs, including their photothermal and imaging capabilities were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Their anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated using orthotopic, tongue tumor-bearing, nude mice.

Results: The NPs possessed good stability and water solubility and were pH/hyaluronidase sensitive. The good tissue penetration quality and active targeting ability enabled the NPs to draw the outline of orthotopic tongue tumors and metastatic lymph nodes as small as 1 mm in nude mice by IR-808 under NIR exposure. In vitro and in vivo experiments validated the biocompatibility and low systematic toxicity of the NPs. At the same time, the NPs acted as multimodal therapy agents, combining photothermal therapy with chemotherapy.

Conclusion: With a good imaging capability and anti-tumor efficacy, our NPs successfully outlined orthotopic tongue tumors and metastatic lymph nodes as well as enabled chemo-photothermal therapy combination. Our study established a solid foundation for the application of new clinical diagnosis and treatment patterns in the future.

Keywords: NIR-II imaging, chemo-photothermal therapy, active targeting, metastatic lymph node detection

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How to cite this article:
Wang Y, Zhang W, Sun P, Cai Y, Xu W, Fan Q, Hu Q, Han W. A Novel Multimodal NIR-II Nanoprobe for the Detection of Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Targeting Chemo-Photothermal Therapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Theranostics 2019; 9(2):391-404. doi:10.7150/thno.30268. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p0391.htm