Theranostics 2017; 7(12):2968-2981. doi:10.7150/thno.19410

Review

Ambient Ionization and Miniature Mass Spectrometry Systems for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring

Wenpeng Zhang1, 2, Xiao Wang1, 2, Yu Xia3, 4, Zheng Ouyang1, 2✉

1. State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
2. Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
3. Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China.
4. Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA.

Abstract

Mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool in the field of biomedicine. The combination of ambient ionization and miniature mass spectrometry systems could most likely fulfill a significant need in medical diagnostics, providing highly specific molecular information in real time for clinical and even point-of-care analysis. In this review, we discuss the recent development of ambient ionization and miniature mass spectrometers as well as their potential in disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, with an emphasis on their capability in analysis of biofluids and tissues. We also speculate the future development of the integrated, miniature MS systems and provide our perspectives on the challenges in technical development as well as possible solutions for path forward.

Keywords: Ambient ionization, Miniature mass spectrometer, Direct sampling, Biofluid analysis, Mass spectrometry imaging.

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How to cite this article:
Zhang W, Wang X, Xia Y, Ouyang Z. Ambient Ionization and Miniature Mass Spectrometry Systems for Disease Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring. Theranostics 2017; 7(12):2968-2981. doi:10.7150/thno.19410. Available from http://www.thno.org/v07p2968.htm