Theranostics 2016; 6(9):1336-1352. doi:10.7150/thno.15464

Review

Recent Developments of Liposomes as Nanocarriers for Theranostic Applications

Hang Xing1,2*, Kevin Hwang1*, Yi Lu1,2✉

1. Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 61801;
2. Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 61801.
*These authors contributed equally to the work.

Abstract

Liposomes are nanocarriers comprised of lipid bilayers encapsulating an aqueous core. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents has led to significant interest in utilizing liposomes as nanocarriers for theranostic applications. In this review, we highlight recent progress in developing liposomes as nanocarriers for a) diagnostic applications to detect proteins, DNA, and small molecule targets using fluorescence, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging; b) therapeutic applications based on small molecule-based therapy, gene therapy and immunotherapy; and c) theranostic applications for simultaneous detection and treatment of heavy metal toxicity and cancers. In addition, we summarize recent studies towards understanding of interactions between liposomes and biological components. Finally, perspectives on future directions in advancing the field for clinical translations are also discussed.

Keywords: liposomes, multimodal imaging, targeted therapy, theranostics, clinical translation.

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How to cite this article:
Xing H, Hwang K, Lu Y. Recent Developments of Liposomes as Nanocarriers for Theranostic Applications. Theranostics 2016; 6(9):1336-1352. doi:10.7150/thno.15464. Available from http://www.thno.org/v06p1336.htm