Theranostics 2016; 6(2):231-242. doi:10.7150/thno.14023

Research Paper

Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses

Seon-Ju Yeo1‡, Kyunghan Choi2‡, Bui Thi Cuc1, Nguyen Ngoc Hong1, Duong Tuan Bao1, Nguyen Minh Ngoc1, Mai Quynh Le3, Nguyen Le Khanh Hang3, Nguyen Co Thach3, Shyam Kumar Mallik4, Hak Sung Kim4, Chom-Kyu Chong5, Hak Soo Choi6, Haan Woo Sung7, Kyoungsik Yu2✉, Hyun Park1✉

1. Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 570-749, Republic of Korea
2. School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-338, Republic of Korea
3. National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, No 1- Yersin street, Hanoi, Vietnam
4. College of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 570-749, Republic of Korea
5. GenBody Inc, No.206, Biotech Business IC, DanKook University, San-29, Anseo-dong, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
6. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston USA
7. College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, 200-701, Republic of Korea
‡ Equal contributor: Seon-Ju Yeo and Kyunghan Choi contributed equally to this work.


Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination.

Keywords: highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device, fluorescence-based immunochromatographic strip test, coumarin-derived dendrimer, field application

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How to cite this article:
Yeo SJ, Choi K, Cuc BT, Hong NN, Bao DT, Ngoc NM, Le MQ, Hang NLK, Thach NC, Mallik SK, Kim HS, Chong CK, Choi HS, Sung HW, Yu K, Park H. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses. Theranostics 2016; 6(2):231-242. doi:10.7150/thno.14023. Available from