Theranostics 2014; 4(6):660-677. doi:10.7150/thno.8698


Nanotheranostics ˗ Application and Further Development of Nanomedicine Strategies for Advanced Theranostics

Madaswamy S. Muthu1, 2, David Tai Leong1, Lin Mei3✉, Si-Shen Feng1✉

1. Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk 5 #02-09, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585, Singapore.
2. Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.
3. Division of Life and Health Sciences, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.


Nanotheranostics is to apply and further develop nanomedicine strategies for advanced theranostics. This review summarizes the various nanocarriers developed so far in the literature for nanotheranostics, which include polymer conjugations, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for sustained, controlled and targeted co-delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for better theranostic effects with fewer side effects. The theranostic nanomedicine can achieve systemic circulation, evade host defenses and deliver the drug and diagnostic agents at the targeted site to diagnose and treat the disease at cellular and molecular level. The therapeutic and diagnostic agents are formulated in nanomedicine as a single theranostic platform, which can then be further conjugated to biological ligand for targeting. Nanotheranostics can also promote stimuli-responsive release, synergetic and combinatory therapy, siRNA co-delivery, multimodality therapies, oral delivery, delivery across the blood-brain barrier as well as escape from intracellular autophagy. The fruition of nanotheranostics will be able to provide personalized therapy with bright prognosis, which makes even the fatal diseases curable or at least treatable at the earliest stage.

Keywords: Cancer nanotechnology, Drug targeting, Molecular biomaterials, Molecular imaging, Oral chemotherapy, Pharmaceutical nanotechnology.

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How to cite this article:
Muthu MS, Leong DT, Mei L, Feng SS. Nanotheranostics ˗ Application and Further Development of Nanomedicine Strategies for Advanced Theranostics. Theranostics 2014; 4(6):660-677. doi:10.7150/thno.8698. Available from