Theranostics 2014; 4(5):546-555. doi:10.7150/thno.8159
Longitudinal PET Imaging of Muscular Inflammation Using 18F-DPA-714 and 18F-Alfatide II and Differentiation with Tumors
1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (CAMS & PUMC), Beijing, China.
2. Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, USA
Aim: 18F-DPA-714 is a PET tracer that recognizes macrophage translocator protein (TSPO), and 18F-Alfatide II (18F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2) is specific for integrin αvβ3. This study aims to apply these two tracers for longitudinal PET imaging of muscular inflammation, and evaluate the value of 18F-DPA-714 in differentiating inflammation from tumor.
Methods: RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells were used for cell uptake analysis of 18F-DPA-714. A mouse hind limb muscular inflammation model was established by intramuscular injection of turpentine oil. For the inflammation model, PET imaging was performed at different days using 18F-DPA-714 and 18F-Alfatide II. The specificity of the imaging probes was tested by co- or pre-injection of PK11195 or unlabeled RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide. PET imaging using 18F-DPA-714 was performed in A549, HT29, U87MG, INS-1, and 4T1 xenograft models. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to evaluate infiltrated macrophages and angiogenesis in inflammation and/or tumors.
Results: Uptake of 18F-DPA-714 in RAW264.7 cells was 45.5% at 1 h after incubation, and could be blocked by PK11195. PET imaging showed increased 18F-DPA-714 and 18F-Alfatide II uptake at inflammatory muscles. Peak uptake of 18F-DPA-714 was seen on day 6 (4.02 ± 0.64 %ID/g), and peak uptake of 18F-Alfatide II was shown on day 12 (1.87 ± 0.35 %ID/g) at 1 h p.i.. Tracer uptakes could be inhibited by PK11195 for 18F-DPA-714 or cold RGD for 18F-Alfatide II. Moreover, macrophage depletion with liposomal clodronate also reduced the local accumulation of both tracers. A549, HT29, U87MG, INS-1, and 4T1 tumor uptakes of 18F-DPA-714 (0.46 ± 0.28, 0.91 ± 0.08, 1.69 ± 0.67, 1.13 ± 0.33, 1.22 ± 0.55 %ID/g at 1 h p.i., respectively) were significantly lower than inflammation uptake (All P < 0.05).
Conclusion: PET imaging using 18F-DPA-714 as a TSPO targeting tracer could evaluate the dynamics of macrophage activation and infiltration in different stages of inflammatory diseases. The concomitant longitudinal PET imaging with both 18F-DPA-714 and 18F-Alfatide II matched the causal relationship between macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis. Moreover, we found 18F-DPA-714 uptake in several types of tumors is significantly lower than that in inflammatory muscles, suggesting 18F-DPA-714 PET has the potential for better differentiation of tumor and non-tumor inflammation.
Keywords: 18F-DPA-714, 18F-Alfatide II, positron emission tomography, inflammation, tumor, TSPO
Wu C, Yue X, Lang L, Kiesewetter DO, Li F, Zhu Z, Niu G, Chen X. Longitudinal PET Imaging of Muscular Inflammation Using 18F-DPA-714 and 18F-Alfatide II and Differentiation with Tumors. Theranostics 2014; 4(5):546-555. doi:10.7150/thno.8159. Available from http://www.thno.org/v04p0546.htm