Theranostics 2013; 3(8):532-543. doi:10.7150/thno.5369

Research Paper

Labeling Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Gold Nanocages for in vitro and in vivo Tracking by Two-Photon Microscopy and Photoacoustic Microscopy

Yu Shrike Zhang1, Yu Wang2, Lidai Wang2, Yucai Wang1, Xin Cai2, Chi Zhang2, Lihong V. Wang2✉, Younan Xia1✉

1. The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA;
2. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Abstract

Stem cell tracking is a highly important subject. Current techniques based on nanoparticle-labeling, such as magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and micro-computed tomography, are plagued by limitations including relatively low sensitivity or penetration depth, involvement of ionizing irradiation, and potential cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles. Here we introduce a new class of contrast agents based on gold nanocages (AuNCs) with hollow interiors and porous walls to label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for both in vitro and in vivo tracking using two-photon microscopy and photoacoustic microscopy. As demonstrated by the viability assay, the AuNCs showed negligible cytotoxicity under a reasonable dose, and did not alter the differentiation potential of the hMSCs into desired lineages. We were able to image the cells labeled with AuNCs in vitro for at least 28 days in culture, as well as to track the cells that homed to the tumor region in nude mice in vivo.

Keywords: gold nanocages, nanoparticles, human mesenchymal stem cells, U87 glioblastoma, blood vessels, stem cell therapy.

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How to cite this article:
Zhang YS, Wang Y, Wang L, Wang Y, Cai X, Zhang C, Wang LV, Xia Y. Labeling Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Gold Nanocages for in vitro and in vivo Tracking by Two-Photon Microscopy and Photoacoustic Microscopy. Theranostics 2013; 3(8):532-543. doi:10.7150/thno.5369. Available from http://www.thno.org/v03p0532.htm