Theranostics 2013; 3(5):346-353. doi:10.7150/thno.5137

Research Paper

Upconversion Nanophosphors Naluf4:Yb,Tm for Lymphatic Imaging In Vivo by Real-Time Upconversion Luminescence Imaging under Ambient Light and High-Resolution X-ray CT

Yun Sun, Juanjuan Peng, Wei Feng, Fuyou Li

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China

Abstract

Lanthanide upconversion nanophosphor (UCNP) has attracted increasing attention for potential applications in bioimaging due to its excellence in deep and high contrast imaging. To date, most upconversion imaging applications were demonstrated in dark surroundings without ambient light for higher signal-to-noise ratio, which hindered the application of optical imaging guided surgery. Herein, the new established NaLuF4-based UCNP (NaLuF4:Yb,Tm, ~17 nm) with bright upconversion emission around 800 nm as imaging signal was used to realize imaging under ambient light to provide more convenient for clinician. Moreover, due to the existance of heavy element lutetium (Lu) in the host lattice, the NaLuF4:Yb,Tm nanoparticles can also be used as an X-ray CT imaging agent to enhance the imaging depth and in vivo imaging resolution.

Keywords: Lanthanide, upconversion luminescence, lutetium, computed tomography, bioimaging

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How to cite this article:
Sun Y, Peng J, Feng W, Li F. Upconversion Nanophosphors Naluf4:Yb,Tm for Lymphatic Imaging In Vivo by Real-Time Upconversion Luminescence Imaging under Ambient Light and High-Resolution X-ray CT. Theranostics 2013; 3(5):346-353. doi:10.7150/thno.5137. Available from http://www.thno.org/v03p0346.htm