Theranostics 2012; 2(11):1040-1053. doi:10.7150/thno.4652


Image Guided Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetic Studies of Theranostics

Hong Ding1,2 ✉, Fang Wu2

1. Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL33199.
2. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260.


Image guided technique is playing an increasingly important role in the investigation of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of drugs or drug delivery systems in various diseases, especially cancers. Besides anatomical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), molecular imaging strategy including optical imaging, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) will facilitate the localization and quantization of radioisotope or optical probe labeled nanoparticle delivery systems in the category of theranostics. The quantitative measurement of the bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics of theranostics in the fields of new drug/probe development, diagnosis and treatment process monitoring as well as tracking the brain-blood-barrier (BBB) breaking through by high sensitive imaging method, and the applications of the representative imaging modalities are summarized in this review.

Keywords: Image, biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, theranostics, nanoparticles, antibody.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Ding H, Wu F. Image Guided Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetic Studies of Theranostics. Theranostics 2012; 2(11):1040-1053. doi:10.7150/thno.4652. Available from