Theranostics 2011; 1:322-340. doi:10.7150/thno/v01p0322

Research Paper

Evaluation of 111In-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptides: Effects of Peptide and Linker Multiplicity on Their Tumor Uptake, Excretion Kinetics and Metabolic Stability

Jiyun Shi1,2, Yang Zhou1, Sudipta Chakraborty1, Young-Seung Kim1, Bing Jia2, Fan Wang2, Shuang Liu1✉

1. School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, IN 47907, USA
2. Medical Isotopes Research Center, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the valence of cyclic RGD peptides, P-RGD (PEG4-c(RGDfK): PEG4 = 15-amino-4,710,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid), P-RGD2 (PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2, 2P-RGD4 (E{PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2}2, 2P4G-RGD4 (E{PEG4-E[G3-c(RGDfK)]2}2: G3 = Gly-Gly-Gly) and 6P-RGD4 (E{PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2}2) in binding to integrin αvβ3, and to assess the impact of peptide and linker multiplicity on biodistribution properties, excretion kinetics and metabolic stability of their corresponding 111In radiotracers.

Methods: Five new RGD peptide conjugates (DOTA-P-RGD (DOTA =1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetracetic acid), DOTA-P-RGD2, DOTA-2P-RGD4, DOTA-2P4G-RGD4, DOTA-6P-RGD4), and their 111In complexes were prepared. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinity of cyclic RGD conjugates were determined by a competitive displacement assay against 125I-c(RGDyK) bound to U87MG human glioma cells. Biodistribution, planar imaging and metabolism studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts.

Results: The integrin αvβ3 binding affinity of RGD conjugates follows the order of: DOTA-6P-RGD4 (IC50 = 0.3 ± 0.1 nM) ~ DOTA-2P4G-RGD4 (IC50 = 0.2 ± 0.1 nM) ~ DOTA-2P-RGD4 (IC50 = 0.5 ± 0.1 nM) > DOTA-3P-RGD2 (DOTA-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2: IC50 = 1.5 ± 0.2 nM) > DOTA-P-RGD2 (IC50 = 5.0 ± 1.0 nM) >> DOTA-P-RGD (IC50 = 44.3 ± 3.5 nM) ~ c(RGDfK) (IC50 = 49.9 ± 5.5 nM) >> DOTA-6P-RGK4 (IC50 = 437 ± 35 nM). The fact that DOTA-6P-RGK4 had much lower integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than DOTA-6P-RGD4 suggests that the binding of DOTA-6P-RGD4 to integrin αvβ3 is RGD-specific. This conclusion is consistent with the lower tumor uptake for 111In(DOTA-6P-RGK4) than that for 111In(DOTA-6P-RGD4). It was also found that the G3 and PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs have a significant impact on the integrin αvβ3-targeting capability, biodistribution characteristics, excretion kinetics and metabolic stability of 111In-labeled cyclic RGD peptides.

Conclusion: On the basis of their integrin αvβ3 binding affinity and tumor uptake of their corresponding 111In radiotracers, it was conclude that 2P-RGD4, 2P4G-RGD4 and 6P-RGD4 are most likely bivalent in binding to integrin αvβ3, and extra RGD motifs might contribute to the long tumor retention times of 111In(DOTA-2P-RGD4), 111In(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) and 111In(DOTA-6P-RGD4) than that of 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD3) at 72 h p.i. Among the 111In-labeled cyclic RGD tetramers evaluated in the glioma model, 111In(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) has very high tumor uptake with the best tumor/kidney and tumor/liver ratios, suggesting that 90Y(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) and 177Lu(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) might have the potential for targeted radiotherapy of integrin αvβ3-positive tumors.

Keywords: integrin αvβ3, 111In-labeled cyclic RGD peptides, tumor imaging

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How to cite this article:
Shi J, Zhou Y, Chakraborty S, Kim YS, Jia B, Wang F, Liu S. Evaluation of 111In-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptides: Effects of Peptide and Linker Multiplicity on Their Tumor Uptake, Excretion Kinetics and Metabolic Stability. Theranostics 2011; 1:322-340. doi:10.7150/thno/v01p0322. Available from http://www.thno.org/v01p0322.htm