Theranostics 2018; 8(17):4710-4732. doi:10.7150/thno.26284

Research Paper

Nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction: evolution toward prospective theranostic approaches

Julian Bejarano1, Mario Navarro-Marquez1, Francisco Morales-Zavala1, Javier O. Morales1,2,3, Ivonne Garcia-Carvajal1, Eyleen Araya-Fuentes1,4, Yvo Flores1, Hugo E. Verdejo5, Pablo F. Castro5, Sergio Lavandero1,6,7✉, Marcelo J. Kogan1,8✉

1. Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Facultad Ciencias Químicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492, Chile.
2. Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnología Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380494, Chile.
3. Pharmaceutical Biomaterial Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, Sweden
4. Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 275, 8370146, Santiago, Chile.
5. Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), División de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
6. Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), & Centro de Estudios en Ejercicio, Metabolismo y Cáncer (CEMC), Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas (ICBM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492, Chile.
7. Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology Division), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
8. Departamento de Química Farmacológica y Toxicológica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile.

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite preventive efforts, early detection of atherosclerosis, the common pathophysiological mechanism underlying cardiovascular diseases remains elusive, and overt coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction is often the first clinical manifestation. Nanoparticles represent a novel strategy for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of atherosclerosis, and new multifunctional nanoparticles with combined diagnostic and therapeutic capacities hold the promise for theranostic approaches to this disease. This review focuses on the development of nanosystems for therapy and diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction and the evolution of nanosystems as theranostic tools. We also discuss the use of nanoparticles in noninvasive imaging, targeted drug delivery, photothermal therapies together with the challenges faced by nanosystems during clinical translation.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, theranostics, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Bejarano J, Navarro-Marquez M, Morales-Zavala F, Morales JO, Garcia-Carvajal I, Araya-Fuentes E, Flores Y, Verdejo HE, Castro PF, Lavandero S, Kogan MJ. Nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction: evolution toward prospective theranostic approaches. Theranostics 2018; 8(17):4710-4732. doi:10.7150/thno.26284. Available from http://www.thno.org/v08p4710.htm