Theranostics 2018; 8(16):4305-4320. doi:10.7150/thno.26506

Research Paper

Cholangiocarcinoma therapy with nanoparticles that combine downregulation of MicroRNA-210 with inhibition of cancer cell invasiveness

Ying Xie1, Yazhe Wang1, Jing Li1,2, Yu Hang1, Lee Jaramillo1,2, Cody J. Wehrkamp3, Mary Anne Phillippi3, Ashley M. Mohr3, Yi Chen1, Geoffrey A. Talmon4, Justin L. Mott3, David Oupický1,2✉

1. Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
2. Bohemica Pharmaceuticals, LLC, La Vista, NE 68128, USA
3. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
4. Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary liver malignancy with extremely poor therapeutic outcome due to high drug resistance, widespread metastasis and lack of effective treatment options. CCA progression and metastasis are regulated by multiple biological factors including multiple miRNAs and chemokine receptor CXCR4. The goal of this study was to test if nanotherapeutic blockade of CXCR4 by polymeric CXCR4 antagonist (PCX) combined with inhibition of hypoxia-inducible miR-210 cooperatively enhances therapeutic efficacy in CCA through reducing invasiveness, inducing cell killing, and reversing drug resistance.

Methods: We first tested the activity of PCX to inhibit migration of CCA cells. We then prepared PCX/anti-miRNA nanoparticles and analyzed their miRNA delivery efficacy and anticancer activity in vitro. Finally, in vivo biodistribution assay and anticancer activity study were performed in CCA tumor-bearing mice.

Results: Our results show that PCX had a broad inhibitory effect on cell migration, effectively delivered anti-miR-210, and downregulated miR-210 expression in CCA cells. Combination PCX/anti-miR-210 nanoparticles showed cytotoxic activity towards CCA cells and reduced the number of cancer stem-like cells. The nanoparticles reversed hypoxia-induced drug resistance and sensitized CCA cells to standard gemcitabine and cisplatin combination treatment. Systemic intravenous treatment with the nanoparticles in a CCA xenograft model resulted in prominent combined antitumor activity.

Conclusion: Our findings support PCX-based nanoparticles as a promising delivery platform of therapeutic miRNA in combination CCA therapies.

Keywords: nanoparticles, miRNA, hypoxia, drug resistance, cholangiocarcinoma

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How to cite this article:
Xie Y, Wang Y, Li J, Hang Y, Jaramillo L, Wehrkamp CJ, Phillippi MA, Mohr AM, Chen Y, Talmon GA, Mott JL, Oupický D. Cholangiocarcinoma therapy with nanoparticles that combine downregulation of MicroRNA-210 with inhibition of cancer cell invasiveness. Theranostics 2018; 8(16):4305-4320. doi:10.7150/thno.26506. Available from http://www.thno.org/v08p4305.htm