Theranostics 2018; 8(2):399-409. doi:10.7150/thno.21696

Research Paper

A Versatile Nanowire Platform for Highly Efficient Isolation and Direct PCR-free Colorimetric Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA from Unprocessed Urine

HyungJae Lee1,3*, Mihye Choi1*, Sang-Hyun Hwang4, Youngnam Cho1,2,5✉

1. Biomarker Branch, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsan-dong-gu, Goyang, Gyeonggi. 10408, Korea;
2. Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsan-dong-gu, Goyang, Gyeonggi. 10408, Korea;
3. Department of Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03722, South Korea;
4. Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea;
5. Genopsy Inc., HongWoo BD 103-B, 373, Kangnamdaero, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 06621, Korea.
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Purpose: As human papillomavirus (HPV) is primarily responsible for the development of cervical cancer, significant efforts have been devoted to develop novel strategies for detecting and identifying HPV DNA in urine. The analysis of target DNA sequences in urine offers a potential alternative to conventional methods as a non-invasive clinical screening and diagnostic assessment tool for the detection of HPV. However, the lack of efficient approaches to isolate and directly detect HPV DNA in urine has restricted its potential clinical use. In this study, we demonstrated a novel approach of using polyethylenimine-conjugated magnetic polypyrrole nanowires (PEI-mPpy NWs) for the extraction, identification, and PCR-free colorimetric detection of high-risk strains of HPV DNA sequences, particularly HPV-16 and HPV-18, in urine specimens of cervical cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We fabricated and characterized polyethylenimine-conjugated magnetic nanowires (PEI/mPpy NWs). PEI/mPpy NWs-based HPV DNA isolation and detection strategy appears to be a cost-effective and practical technology with greater sensitivity and accuracy than other urine-based methods. Results: The analytical and clinical performance of PEI-mPpy NWs was evaluated and compared with those of cervical swabs, demonstrating a superior type-specific concordance rate of 100% between urine and cervical swabs, even when using a small volume of urine (300 µL). Conclusion: We envision that PEI-mPpy NWs provide substantive evidence for clinical diagnosis and management of HPV-associated disease with their excellent performance in the recovery and detection of HPV DNA from minimal amounts of urine samples.

Keywords: urine, cell-free DNA, HPV, cervical cancer, magnetic nanowires, colorimetric detection.

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How to cite this article:
Lee H, Choi M, Hwang SH, Cho Y. A Versatile Nanowire Platform for Highly Efficient Isolation and Direct PCR-free Colorimetric Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA from Unprocessed Urine. Theranostics 2018; 8(2):399-409. doi:10.7150/thno.21696. Available from http://www.thno.org/v08p0399.htm