Theranostics 2013; 3(10):731-740. doi:10.7150/thno.5162


Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging

Xuping Zhu, Georges El Fakhri

Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, NMMI Division, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.


Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions, and approaches for data evaluation are discussed.

Keywords: proton therapy, proton range verification, PET imaging.

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How to cite this article:
Zhu X, Fakhri GE. Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging. Theranostics 2013; 3(10):731-740. doi:10.7150/thno.5162. Available from